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Islamic Hoards and Their Terror - By B. R. Ambedkar  

The first Muslim invasion of India came from the north-west by the Arabs who were led by Mahommad Bin Qasim. It took place in 711 A.D. and resulted in the conquest of Sind. This first Muslim invasion did not result in a permanent occupation of the country because the Caliphate of Baghdad, by whose order and command the invasion had taken place, was obliged by the middle of 9th century A.D. to withdraw its direct control from this distant province of Sind. Soon after this withdrawal, there began a series of terrible invasions by Muhammad of Ghazni (the idol breaker)  in 1001 A.D. Muhammad died in 1030 A.D., but within the short span of 30 years, he invaded India 17 times. He was followed by Mahommed Ghori, who began his career as an invader in 1173. He was killed in 1206. For thirty years Muhammad of Ghazni ravaged India and for thirty years Mahommad Ghori harried the same country in the same way.

Then followed the incursions of the Moghul hordes of Chenghiz Khan. They first came in 1221. They then stayed on the border of India but did not enter it. Twenty years later, they marched on Lahore and sacked it. Of their inroads, the most terrible was under Timur in 1398. Then comes on the scene a new invader in the person of Babar who invaded India in 1526. The invasion of India did not stop with that of Babar. There occurred two more invasions. In 1738 Nadir Shah’s invading host swept over the Punjab like a flooded river “furious as the ocean”. He was followed by Ahmad Shah Abdali who invaded India in 1761, smashed the forces of the Marathas at Panipat and crushed for ever the attempt of the Hindus to gain the ground which they had lost to their Muslim invaders. 

These Muslim invasions were not undertaken merely out of lust for loot or conquest, but also to strike a blow at the idolatry and polytheism of Hindus and establishing Islam in India. 

Muhammad of Ghazni also looked upon his numerous invasions of India as the waging of a holy war. Al’Utbi, the historian of Muhammad, describing his raids writes: 

“He demolished idol temples and established Islam. He captured ……cities, destroyed the idolaters, and gratifying Muslims. He then returned home and promulgated accounts of the victories obtained for Islam……..and vowed that every year he would undertake a holy war against Hind.”    

(source: Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Writings and Speeches. Reprint of Pakistan or The Partition of India. Education Department. Government of Maharashtra 1990 Vol. 8. p. 53-66).for more ....

The temple of Somnath, which is not very far from Dwaraka, is dedicated to Lord Siva as Nagnath or Nageshwar Mahadev, and enshrines one of the twelve ‘Jyotirlingas’ which according to the Puranas manifested themselves as columns of light in different parts of the country. The magnificent temple that stands there now is a replica of the original temple. The 13th century Arab source refers to the glories of the temple thus: "Somnath - a celebrated city of India situated on the shore of the sea is washed by its waves. Among the wonders of that place was the temple in which was placed the idol called Somnat. This idol was in the middle of the temple, without anything to support it from below or to suspend it from above. It was held in the highest honour among the Hindus, and whoever beheld it floating in the air was struck with amazement..."

Sultan Alau’d-Din Khalji (1296-1316), in Tarikh-I-Firuz Shahi, op. cit: 

Somnath (Gujarat): “At the beginning of the third year of the reign, Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan, with their amirs and generals, and a large army marched against Gujarat…All Gujarat became prey to the invaders, and the idol, which after the victory of Sultan Mahmud and his destruction of )the idol) of Manat, the Brahmans had set up under the name of Somanat, for the worship of the Hindus, was carried to Delhi where it was laid for the people to tread upon….” (Report to the same effect in Tabqat-I-Tawarikh; the latter also mentions that at the site of the temple a mosque was constructed.)

(source: Eminent Historians: Their Technology, Their Line, Their Fraud - By Arun Shourie Harper Collins India  ISBN 8172233558 p. 107-136).

Refer to Romila Thapar’s Kluge Prize – By Dr. Gautam Sen -

"In 1193, when the Muslim conquerors reached Bihar and massacred the 'idolatrous unbelievers', the Buddhists were still in the majority on the lower Ganges. According to an 11th century inscription, the great temple of Bodh Gaya had been restored by the Burmese - an indication that the native population had lost all interest. 

(source: India - By Martin Hurlimann  p. 224). Refer to Heroic Hindu Resistance to Muslim Invaders (636 AD to 1206 AD) - By Sita Ram Goel. Voice of India, New Delhi.

Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi, who rampaged across most of northern India converting Hindus to Islam and smashing Hindu statues. He is said to have taken Hindu statues and put them at the entrance to a mosque in Ghazni so the Muslim faithful could use them as stepping stones.

(source: Associated Press).

Dr Rajendra Prasad (1884-1963) first President of India, during the renovation of the historic Somnath temple in 1950 which was vandalised by a 11th century Muslim invader, Mohammad Ghazni.

'By rising from its ashes again, this temple of Somnath will proclaim to the world that no man and no power in the world can destroy that for which people have boundless faith and love in their hearts... Today, our attempt is not to rectify history. Our only aim is to proclaim anew our attachment to the faith, convictions and to the values on which our religion has rested since immemorial ages.'

(source: Symbol of an awakened civilization - Ram Madhav - For more on Somnath refer Somnath and Ayodhya: What Is the Difference - By David Frawley).

Refer to Islam Under Scrutiny by Ex-Muslims - By Alamgir Hussain - and Jamia Millia Islamia holds conference with Vice President of India & Fake Shankaracharya

When Marxist Historian, Romila Thapar tries to make gullible readers believe that Mahmud Ghaznavi only desecrated temples for their wealth she must know (assuming, as all her quoters do, that she is competent historian) that Mahmud is revered by the Muslims as a devout Muslim, that he calligraphed Quran text "for the benefit of his soul", and that he actually refused a huge ransom which Hindus were ready to pay if he agreed to give back an idol, instead of breaking it. Mahmud preferred breaking idols to selling them, even if that meant foregoing wealth. So her theory of Mahmud's economical rather than religious motives is at best an unscientific imposition of Marxist dogma upon the facts of Indian history, otherwise a deliberate lie. 

The myth of Brahmin oppression, the myth of Buddhism as a social reform movement, the myth of the Buddhist-Brahmin power struggle, the myth of the economical motives for the Muslim conquests and destruction, the myth of the non-existence of an indigenous and nation-wide Hindu culture, the myth of the social reforms brought by Islam, the myth of Hindu-Muslim amity, the myth of Nehru and of India as a a nation in the making, the myth of the Composite Culture, the myth that communalism is a British creation, all these myths are bound to give way once a substantial number of Hindu intellectuals apply their minds to them in a serious and scientific way, and then use the available channels to speak out.

(source: Ayodhya and After - By Koenraad Elst). Refer to Heroic Hindu Resistance to Muslim Invaders (636 AD to 1206 AD) - By Sita Ram Goel. Voice of India, New Delhi.

Refer to video Statistics on Islamic Terrorism - By B Raman.

Refer to Ignore this genocide, we're secular - By Rajeev Srinivasan - Also refer to Blasts in Varanasi

"Why are there absolutely no Buddhist temples left in Afghanistan, in Turkestan? Nor Hindu or Zorastrian or Manichaen temples, for that matter? Secularist scholars do not seem to know that the Buddhist monasteries and universities were destroyed and exterminated to the last, in India just as well as in Central Asia, by none other than the Muslim armies. So, the answer is that, while, Buddhism had been partly reabsorbed into Hinduism, and had partly continued as a separate tradition under Hindu dynasties, the Muslim conquerors finished it off totally."

(source: Ayodhya and After - By Koenraad Elst  Voice of India SKU: INBK2650  p. 103).

The Quwwat ul-Islam or 'Might of Islam' Mosque, erected on the site of Delhi's largest Hindu temple, and it contains on three sides, by rows of stone columns pillaged from some 27 local Hindu and Jain shrines. To the southeast was erected the great Qutb (pole or axis) Minar. It was haughtily erected as a tower of victory, and its inscriptions proclaim its purpose - to cast a long shadow of God over the conquered city of the Hindus. Qutub-ud-din employed the local Hindu craftsmen of Delhi, and their beautifully detailed stonework is everywhere in evidence. The pointed arches of the mosque's western screen were constructed using only traditional Hindu corbelling techniques; and around these arches and on the decorative band encircling the minar the craftsmen carved inscriptions, in elegant Naskhi script, interspersed with floral designs of Indian origin. 

(source: Indian Art - By Roy C. Craven p. 195-196). Also refer to India: Putting the Fallouts of the Islamic Invasion and British Occupation in Perspective - by Alamgir Hussain -

Refer to Heroic Hindu Resistance to Muslim Invaders (636 AD to 1206 AD) - By Sita Ram Goel. Voice of India, New Delhi.

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Golden pages of Indian History not in our textbooks?

Battle of Baharaich  

It is interesting that none of the history textbooks we read, mention this great victory of Indian Union over Islamic hordes from northwest of India . There is a famous battle of Baharaich near Lucknow .

This battle was fought on 14th June 1033.


The nephew of Mahmood Gazni, known as Masud Gazni, invaded India with army of more than 100,000 men in may 1031 AD. This time, the army was not a raiding party like that of Mahmood who came with intention of raiding, looting and retreating with the loot to Afghanistan . They were backed by the imperial army Persian empire and came here with the intention of permanent conquest and Islamization of India.

King Anandpal Shahi tried to check this Gazni advance towards heartland of India . He was helped by King of Sialkot , Rai Arjun. But, this alliance was overwhelmed by superiority of numbers of Pathan army. After defeating Anandpal Shahi and Rai Arjun, Masood advanced towards towards Malwa and Gujarat . King Mahipal Tomara tried to check their advance here but was defeated too. 

After victories across North Indian plains, Masood Gazni settled at Bahraich near Lucknow . He stayed here up to mid 1033. Meanwhile, 17 Rajput Kings of north India forged an alliance. This is biggest confederation that have ever existed in India . The head of this confederation was Raja Sukhdev, a Gurjara-Rajput King. It would be interesting to know how the alliance was forged and how was the game of chess played before the final showdown on 14th June. However, I have not come across any books which deals with this part of History in detail.

In June 1033, as per Hindu traditions, Masood Gazni was intimated by Rajput confederation that the land belonged to Rajputs and Hindus and Masood should evacuate these lands. Masood replied that all land belongs to Khuda and hence he would not retreat.

On 13th June, Morning, Rajput army of about 120,000 descended on Gazni camp of Bahraich. Masood's army was completely besieged and encircled. The battle continued for hours. In the end, each and every man in Masood's camp was killed. No POW's were taken, no mercy was shown on the Afghan army. The location of this battle to be precise was near Chittaura Jheel, a lake about 8 KM away from modern Bahraich on Bahraich-Gond Road . The battle ended on 14th June with Victory of Raja Sukhdev and his Rajput alliance.

The invasion was completely crushed and such resounding was this victory that none of the king from Northwest dared to invade India for 160 years..

This is one of the golden pages of Indian History. India is indebted to series of Rajput Kings along the western border of India and in Central India . They were extremely instrumental in keeping Arab invaders at bay for 3 centuries. This was the time when Arabs were at their zenith. The Khilafat extended from Western Sindh to Spain .. However, they could not defeat Rajputs and enter Indian heartlands.

Rajputs were also instrumental in initial defeat of Muslim invaders from Northwest. The Battle of Bahraich was the peak point of Rajput valor. Their resistance waned with time over next 5 centuries. Rana Pratap was perhaps last famous Rajput general to fight invaders.

The tomb of Masood Gazni is still present at Bahraich. People there have elevated him to the status of peer and Gaazi and worship him. And there is no single mention of this glorious victory of Hindus. This, in my opinion, is an insult of Rajput valor. Same is the case with tomb of Afzal Khan at Pratapgarh in Maharashtra who was slain by Shivaji. 
I do not oppose theistic beliefs. However, people worshiping the tombs of people like Masood Gazni and Afzal Khan should be made aware of their heinous deeds.

(source: Battle of Baharaich - 

It is astonishing that we Hindus should have forgotten this memorable battle for 950 years!

Mahmood of Gazani attacked Sorti Somnath, the famous Shiva temple in Gujrat, for the last time, in 1026. Mahmood Ghori attacked North India in 1192. What happened in the intermediate period of 166 years?  Were the Muslims just too tired of raids? The answer is NO - They did attack, but faced a fierce battle at Baharaich, 60 miles North East of Lucknow. The entire Muslim army was wiped out, on 14 June 1033.  Not one Muslim survived to tell people back in Iran this bitter news. And as a result they did not dare attack India for more than six generations. The details are given in "Meerat-e-Masudi" by Sheikh Abdul Rahman Chisti. He says - Mahmood of Gazni's sister Maula was married to Salar Sahu, the Sultan of Iran. Their son Masood aged 12 accompanied Mahmood of Gazni on his last attack on Somnath. In 1031 Masood with 50,000 horses accompanied by two generals Meer Hussain Arab and Ameer Vazid Jafar attacked India . He crossed Sind, defeated Rai Arjun of Sahoor and King Anangpal of Multan . He marched on to Delhi . Here he was joined by his uncle Salar Saifuddin, Meer Wakhtiar, Meer Sayyad Ajijuddin and Malik Bahruddin and their armies. They defeated Rai Mahipal after a battle of 5 days. Rajputs fought to the last man. They marched on to Meerut and Ujjain whose Hindu kings made friendship treaties. Later Saket was taken.

- Miyya Rajab and Salar Saifuddin took Baharaich. Ameer Hasan Arab took Mahoona, Malik Fazal took Banares. Sulutanu-s-Salateen and Mir Bakhatiar went south to Kannor and there Mir Bakhtiar was killed during a fight with the Hindus.  

- Masood's father (King of Iran ) Salar Sahu arrived at Saket with a large army. Kada and Manikpur states were taken. Hindus fought to the last man.

On 14 June 1033 the entire Muslim army was wiped out at Bahraich during a pitch battle with a combined army of 17 Hindu Kings. They were Rai Raib, Rai Saib, Rai Arjun, Rai Bheekhan, Rai Kanak, Rai Kalyan, Rai Makaru, Rai Savaru, Rai aran, Rai Birbal, Rai Jaypal, Rai Shreepal, Rai Harpal, Rai Hakru, Rai Prabhu, Rai Deo Narayan and Rai Narsinha. They had 20 lakh (2 Million) horsemen and 30 lakh (3 million) footmen. Rai Sahar Deo and Rai Hardev also joined (Note - The figures of 2 million horsemen and 3 million footmen seem to be exaggerated). After the defeat of Salar Masood, Muzzafarkhan also died at Ajmer . His successors were driven out by the Hindus. All the temples were rehabitated. Bells rang without hindrance. This state of affairs continued for 200 years. 

Ref. - Tawarikh-e-Mahamood (of Mahmood of Gazani)
           Muntkhabut – Tawarikh etc. 

It is astonishing that we Hindus should have forgotten this memorable battle for 950 years!

(Original paper in Hindi by Vinod Kumar Mishra of Prayag). 

(source: INDIAN INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH INTO TRUE HISTORY - Newsletter No. 13 of 16 June 1984).

Fierce and persistent Hindu resistance to the Islamic Jihad prevented the complete Islamization of India

Unlike the complete Islamization of Persia, Egypt , Mesopotamia , Turkey , North Africa , the Islamization of India was never complete. After more than one millennium of Muslim Tyranny from 715 up to 1761, more than 70 percent of the population of India remained Hindu. 

Unlike the Zoroastrian Persians, the Hindus never surrendered to the Muslim tyrants. They waged a relentless and violent struggle against the Muslims. It was the valiant Hindu resistance that put paid all the savagery of the Muslims to convert all the Hindus to Islam at the pain of death.


Indian Code of Chivalry:The Rajput and Maratha Warriors

Hindus, like the Jews, have been subject to Muslim persecution for centuries. Following the example set by the Prophet, Muslim invaders destroyed Hindu places of worship and sold Hindu women and children in the slave markets of Damascus and Baghdad. For centuries, Rajputs, Marathas, Jats and Sikhs fought Muslim invaders.

Rajput Kingdoms contended with the rising and expansionist empires of Central Asia, be they Arabs, Moghuls,Mongols Afghans, or other Turks. They earned their reputation by fighting these battles with a code of chivalrous conduct rooted in their strong adherence to tradition and (Hindu Dharma). The Rajput Kingdoms held out against the Arab Caliphates and other Central Asian Empires for several centuries.  The heroism and sacrifice displayed by the Rajputs is legendary in the chronicles of Indian history.

A point to note here is that lot of Muslims, Western and some Hindu historians think that Islam/Muslims did not do conversion of Hindus by sword. The argument they give is that there are so many Hindus still today in India. This is completely wrong because most Muslim rulers in India tried to convert as many as they could but it was the strength of Rajput sword and later Maratha, Sikh swords that kept Hinduism alive in India. If there were no Rajputs, Marathas , Sikhs in India, then India would be just like Iraq, Iran, Turkey, or Pakistan in terms of religion of the population.

The perseverance of Hinduism in India by the Rajput sword against the entire might of Islamic rulers is the most glorious achievement by a race in the annals of world history and every one should know this fact, more so Indians and most definitely each and every Rajput. Presence of Rajput generals in Mughal army was a blessing in disguise for the Hindu population as the mughal army when headed by a rajput general could not engage in wanton destruction of Hindu temples as well as mass conversion of Hindus to Islam. 

Colonel James Todd in his Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan wrote:

"What nation on earth could have maintained the semblance of civilization, the spirit or the customs of their forefathers, during so many centuries of overwhelming depression, but one of such singular character as the Rajpoot? . . . Rajasthan exhibits the sole example in the history of mankind, of a people withstanding every outrage barbarity could inflict, or human nature sustain, from a foe whose religion commands annihilation; and bent to the earth, yet rising buoyant from the pressure, and making calamity a whetstone to courage. . . . Not an iota of their religion or customs have they lost. . . ". 

Contrast this to how Muslims converted entire Iranian kingdom, where a very ancient religion of Zoroaster flourished, on the edge of the sword in a very short amount of time.

(source: The Great Rajputs - Refer to Heroic Hindu Resistance to Muslim Invaders (636 AD to 1206 AD) - By Sita Ram Goel. Voice of India, New Delhi.

For more refer to Rajputs and Invasion of India. Also refer to Hindu Resistance to Islamic Jihad

Heroism of Prithiviraj Chauhan 

Prithviraj Chauhan III was the last of the great Chauhan rulers of Ajmer who left a deep imprint in the sands of time and redefined the concept of valour in its noblest form. The legendary Prithviraj lived here and became a force to reckon with. His exploits are related with great wonder and sometimes disbelief. Few rulers of that time could match the charisma and heroism of this dynamic ruler.

Prithviraj was the son of Someshwara who died in 1179 A.D. The second Turkish attack was led by Mu'izzu'd-Din Muhammad (also known as Muhammad Ghuri), who conquered Sindh and Lahore in 1182. Soon after, he commenced his attack on the Rajput kingdoms. Prithviraj Chauhan successfully led the Rajputs against Ghuri at the first battle of Tarain in 1191 AD. However, at the second battle in 1192 AD, Prithviraj who became the last Hindu ruler was defeated and the kingdom of Delhi fell to Muhammad Ghuri. 

Prithviraj Chauhan, king of Delhi, magnanimously let Ghuri off. Legend has it - and it is widely believed in India - that when Ghori eventually succeeded in defeating Prithviraj Chauhan at the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192, he blinded him and took him in chains to Afghanistan along with his friend, the poet Chandravardai.

Adhai – din- ka- Jhonpra - Its construction took two and a half days (Adhai-Din) to complete. It was originally a Sanskrit college, built within a temple. In 1193 A.D., Mohammad Ghauri conquered Ajmer and converted the building into a mosque by adding a seven arched wall in front of the pillared hall in just two-and-a-half days (adhai-din) and hence the name.

To this day, Prithviraj Chauhan is remembered by the Rajputs as a model of chivalry and courage, and is the hero of many folk ballads.



The Legendary Prithviraj Chauhan III was the last of the great Chauhan rulers of Ajmer, Rajasthan.

To this day, Prithviraj Chauhan is remembered by the Rajputs as a model of chivalry and courage, and is the hero of many folk ballads.

The Rajput warriors earned their reputation by fighting these battles with a code of chivalrous conduct rooted in their strong adherence to tradition and (Hindu dharma). 


Shivaji - The Great Maratha Warrior

For about three hundred and fifty years before Shivaji, Maharashtra was not a free state. A large portion of it was under the rule of the Nizamshah of Ahmednagar and the Adilshah of Bijapur. These two had divided Maharashtra among themselves. Their officers rules Maharashtra on their behalf. Adilshah and Nizamshah, were very narrow in their outlook and oppressed the people over whom they ruled. They were also sworn enemies of each other. They constantly fought each other and as a result the people of Maharashtra suffered untold hardships. There was hunger everywhere and the people were starving. People were not free to celebrate festivals and worship their Gods openly. Life was not safe at all and injustice prevailed everywhere.


Shivaji - The Great Maratha Warrior


On this background, 18 year old Shivaji and his faithfuls took the oath at Rohedeshwar Temple to establish a nation of the natives which Shivaji maintained was the will of the providence. In his next 35 years he lived an epic which thrilled the imagination of his friends and foes alike.

It is true that Shivaji contributed a lot towards the rise and growth of Maratha power in India, but it is equally true that at the time he appeared on the scene, the ground had already been prepared for him. 

Shivaji Maharaj was coronated at fort Raigad about 350 years ago. The throne was made up of gold and studded with diamonds.  

Rabindranath Tagore wrote about Shivaji’s great ideals:  

“Into one virtuous rule, 
This divided, broken, distracted India
I shall bind.”  

In his essay on Shivaji and the Maharastrains written in Bengali from the Visva Bharati quarterly, he wrote:  

In the history of Maharastrians we find Shivaji in the dominating role. But Shivaji could never have achieved greatness, had not the whole of the Maharastrian nation made him great. The religious movement in Maharashtra was uniting the people through a process of churning. Shivaji’s genius was derived from that churning."  

Sir Jadunath Sarkar was right in observing that, “Shivaji’s ideals were such that we might accept them even today without any change.”  

“He was a person of middling height, with an erect bearing and excellent proportions, very active and whenever he used to speak, it appeared as if he was smiling. He had quick and piercing eyes and was fairer than any of his own people.” -      English Records on Shivaji – vol. 1 p. 73. January 1664.  

“With a success as happy as Ceasar’s in Spain; he came, saw, and overcame and is reported to have taken so vast a treasure in gold, diamonds, emeralds, rubies and wrought corall that have strengthened his arms with very able sinews to prosecute his further designs.  “He being no less dexterous, thereat (conquests) than Alexander the Great was for, by the agility of his winged men (himself terming them birds) he took in less than eight months what he had delivered to Jaysing.” -    English Records on Shivaji – vol. II p. 150. dated January 1677- 78.  

“But it is too well known that Shivaji is as second Sertorious, and comes not short of Hannibal for Stratagems.”
            -    English Records on Shivaji. Vol II p. 153. dated February 14 1677 – 78.


“Into one virtuous rule, 
This divided, broken, distracted India
I shall bind.”  


Sir Jadunath Sarkar, House of Shivaji  p. 115 remarked:

“The Historian of Shivaji at the end of a careful study of all the records about him in eight different languages, is bound to admit that Shivaji was not only the maker of the Maratha nation, but also the greatest constructive genius of medieval India . States fall, empires break up, dynasties become extinct, but the memory of a true “hero as King” like Shivaji remains an imperishable historical legacy for the entire human race. – The pillar of people’s hope. The center of a world’s desire, to animate the heart, to kindle the imagination, and to inspire the brain of succeeding ages to the highest endeavors.”  

According to Dr. Ishwari Prasad, "But Shivaji's rise to power cannot be treated as an isolated phenomenon in Maratha history. It was as much the result of his personal daring and heroism as of the peculiar geographical situation of the Deccan country and unifying religious influences that were animating the people with new hopes and aspirations in the 15th and 16th centuries."  


The Maratha the most formidable enemy; for he will not fail in boldness and enterprise when they are indispensible, and will always support them or supply their place, by stratagem, activity and perseverance. 


Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru said: "Shivaji did not belong to Maharashtra alone; he belonged to the whole Indian nation."

"Shivaji was not an ambitious ruler anxious to establish a kingdom for himself but a patriot inspired by a vision and political ideas derived from the teachings of the ancient philosophers. He studied the merits and faults of the systems of administration in kingdoms existing at the time and determined his own policies and administration in the light of that knowledge. A devout Hindu, he was tolerant of other religions and established a number of endowments for maintainig sacred places belonging to them. As a general he was undoubtedly one of the greatest in Indian history; he saw the need for and raised a navy to guard his coastline and to fight against the British and the Dutch. Pratapgad Fort build in 1656 stands today as a monument to his military genius. Shivaji is a symbol of many virtues, more especially of love of country."    

A.B. de Braganca Pereira
Arquivo Portugues Oriental, Vol III
wrote: "Wonderous mystic, adventurous and intrepid, fortunate, roving prince, with lovely and magnetic eyes, pleasing countenance, winsome and polite, magnanimous to fallen foe like Alexander, keen and a sharp intellect, quick in decision, ambitious conqueror like Julius Caesar, given to action, resolute and strict disciplinarian, expert strategist, far-sighted and constructive statesman, brilliant organizer, who sagaciously countered his political rivals and antagonists like the Mughals, Turks of Bijapur, the Portuguese, the English, the Dutch, and the French. Undaunted by the mighty Moghuls, then the greatest power in Asia. He fought with Bijapuri to carve out a great empire."

D. Kincaid - The Grand Rebel "In spite of the character of a crusade which Ramdas's blessings gave to Shivaji's long struggle, it is remarkable how little religious animosity or intolerance Shivaji displayed. His kindness to Catholic priests is an agreeable contrast to the proscriptions of the Hindu priesthood in the Indian and Maratha territories of the Portuguese. Even his enemies remarked on his extreme respect for Mussulman priests, for mosques and for the koran. The Muslim historian Khafi Khan, who cannot mention Shivaji in his cronicle without adding epithets of vulgar abuse, nevertheless acknowledges that Shivaji never entered a conquered town without taking measures to safeguard the mosques from damage. Whenever a koran came to his possession, he treated it with the same respect as if it had been one of the sacred works of his own faith. Whenever his men captured Mussulman ladies, they were brought to Shivaji, who looked after them as if they were his wards till he could return them to their relations."   


Shivaji: The founder of the Maratha power. 

(image source: India Armour - By Lord Egerton, Lord of Tatton).  


Cosme da Guarda - Life of the Celebrated Sevaji: "Such was the good treatment Shivaji accorded to people and such was the honesty with which he observed the capitulations that none looked upon him without a feeling of love and confidence. By his people he was exceedingly loved. Both in matters of reward and punishment he was so impartial that while he lived he made no exception for any person; no merit was left unrewarded, no offence went unpunished; and this he did with so much care and attention that he specially charged his governors to inform him in writing of the conduct of his soldiers, mentioning in particular those who had distinguished themselves, and he would at once order their promotion, either in rank or in pay, according to their merit. He was naturally loved by all men of valor and good conduct."  

Prime Minister Indira Gandhi observed: 

"I think Shivaji ranks among the greatest men of the world. Since we were a slave country, our great men have been somewhat played down in world history. Had the same person been born in a European country, he would have been praised to the skies and known everywhere. It would have been said that he had illumined the world."

Sir E. Sullivan says in Warriors and Statesmen of India

"Shivaji possessed every quality requisite for success in the disturbed age in which he lived.  Cautious and wily in council, he was fierce and daring in action; he possessed an endurance that made him remarkable even amongst his hardy subjects, and an energy and decision that would in any age have raised him to distinctions.  By his own people he was painted on a white horse going at full gallop, tossing grains of rice into his mouth, to signify that his speed did not allow him to stop to eat.  He was the Hindu prince who forced the heavy Mughal cavalry to fly before the charge of the native horse of India. His strength and activity in action were glory and admiration of his race."   


Shivaji on the March.

(image source: History of India - By A V Williams Jackson). 


Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) poet, author, philosopher, Nobel prize laureate. Tagore was deeply critical of the British Raj in India. He wrote a poem: 

In what far-off country, upon what obscure day
know not now,Seated in the gloom of some Mahratta mountain-wood
O King Shivaji,
Lighting thy brow, like a lightning flash,
This thought descended,
"Into one virtuous rule, this divided broken distracted India,
I shall bind."

As Sir Jadunath Sarkar (1870-1958) eminent historian, has well expressed:

"Shivaji proved, by his example, that the Hindu race could build a nation, found a State, defeat its enemies; they could conduct their own defence; they could protect and promote literature and art, commerce and industry; they could maintain navies and ocean going fleets of their own, and conduct naval battles on equal terms with foreigners. He taught the modern Hindus to rise to the full stature of their growth. He demonstrated that the tree of Hinduism was not dead, and that it could put forth new leaves and branches and once again rise up its head to the skies. "

(source: Shivaji and His Times - By Sir Jadunath Sarkar p. 406).  


Goddess Bhavani at Pratapgad Fort.


D. F. Karaka author of  Shivaji: Portrait of an Early Indian has written the following passage:

" birth a Hindu, by caste a Maratha but by his own inclination Shivaji was an early Indian who fought to preserve the native heritage of the people of the land from the foreign invaders, at that time Moghul and Muslim, but to Shivaji's way of thinking, it could have been anyone else" 

(source: Shivaji: Portrait of an Early Indian - By Dosabhai Framji Karaka  p. 167).

Leaders such as Lala Lajpat Rai, Tilak, Annie Besant, Aurobindo Ghosh and poet Tagore have paid eloquent tributes to Shivaji as a great national leader and the builder of the country.

(source: Shivshahi.on the Web). 

Shivaji and Aurangzeb - An All India Struggle

Shivaji had broadend the struggle against the Mughals into an all India one. He had brought the Deccan States together against the Mughals. He had enouraged the Bundelas in their struggle. Ever tolerant of other faiths, Shivaji was hurt beyond measure by Aurangzeb's intolerant policies, such as the imposition of Jizia and senseless destruction of places of worship. In a spirited letter to Aurangazeb, Shivaji reminded the latter that intolerance would lead to the ultimate destruction of the Mughal Empire and that toleration alone should be the basis of any rule in a country like India. This letter is one of the great documents of Indian history.

Aurangzeb and Shivaji - The two represented two different forces in history, one intolerant and narrow minded, the other liberal, humanitarian and tolerant. The one aggressive and expansionist, the other spirited and defensive. In this struggle, Shivaji and the spirit of Shivaji, which stood out for freedom, justice, tolerance and humanity were the ultimate victors.

Shivaji's Maritime Power  

Having realized fairly early in his meteoric career the importance of navy to his realm, Shivaji set about achieving his aim in a methodical, deliberate manner, as was his wont. Shivaji’s navy made a small beginning with his conquest of what is today the district of Thane. Around 1659 a handful of his vessels plied in inland waterways and creeks around Bhiwandi, Panvel and Kalyan and created quite a stir among the Portuguese. With his ever growing power along the west coast hinterland, he quickly enlarged the size of his navy. Besides the defence of his territories, he pressed it into profitable ventures along the Malabar Coast .  


Shivaji on horseback - It is a tribute to his foresight and military genius that side by side with the development of his fleet, he carried out a systematic campaign of capturing the forts along the coast and built fortifications at strategic points.


It is a tribute to his foresight and military genius that side by side with the development of his fleet, he carried out a systematic campaign of capturing the forts along the coast and built fortifications at strategic points. He spared no efforts in collecting the very best among shipwrights and gunsmiths. Sindhudurg, the Fort of the Ocean, built on an island of Malvan , on whose many bastions fluttered the Zari Patka, bore testimony to his immense concern for safeguarding his maritime interests.  

Shivaji’s Fleet  

His fleet consisted of the big Gurabs, the slow moving gun boats, Galbats, sleek and swift assault vessels, Shibars and Machwas, the trading vessels. At the peak of its strength, Shivaji’s fleet had 700 vessels of various sizes, though most of these belonged to the Mercantile Marine and were cargo carrying in nature. At the time of his coronation in 1674, he had 57 major war ships and a total strength of 5,000 able bodied men. 



Mahartha Grab and Gallivat ships attacking an English ship.

(image source: History of Indian Shipping - By Radha Kumud Mukerjee).

For more refer to chapters on Suvarnabhumi, Pacific and Sacred Angkor


Five years later in 1679, the strength of big ships rose to 66. In 1665, barely five years after the raising of his fleet from scratch, he mounted an expedition to Karwar and Ankola with 85 assorted ships. This was essentially a ‘Show the flag’ affair but also to build up the efficiency of his fleet. Again in 1670, his fleet, much stronger now, set sail for another such ‘Show the flag’ expedition towards Surat . Such forays along the west coast created panic and concern among the alien powers, notably the English and Portuguese. They presumably thought – “What if he repeats his exploits at sea with similar tenacity and purpose as he has carried out his lightning campaigns on land!

(source: Shivaji: The Great Nation Builder - By S K Sagane published by Government of Maharashtra, Mumbai, India).

The Great Maratha Power

J. Grant Duff says in History of the Marathas 

"Bred a soldier as well as a statesman, Bajeerao united the enterprise, vogour, and hardihood of a Maratha chief with the polished manners, the sagacity, and address which frequently distinguish the Brahmins of the Concan.  Fully acquainted with the financial schemes of his father, he selected that part of the plan calculated to direct the predatory hordes of Maharashtra in a common effort.  In this respect, the genious of Bajeerao enlarged the schemes which his father devised; and unlike most Brahmins of him, it may be truly said- he had both- the head to plan and the hand to execute." 

Sir R. Temple says in Oriental Experiences 

"Bajirao was hardly to be surpassed as a rider and was ever forward in action, eager to expose himself under fire if the affair was arduous.  He was inured to fatigue and prided himself on enduring the same hardships as his soldiers and sharing their scanty fare.  He was moved by an ardour for success in national undertakings by a patriotic confidence in the Hindu cause as against its old enemies, the Muhammadans and its new rivals, the Europeans then rising above the political horizon.  He lived to see the Maratha spread over the Indian continent from the Arabian sea to the Bay of Bengal.  He died as he lived in camp under canvas among his men and he is remembered among the Marathas as the fighting Peshwa, as the incarnation of Hindu energy." 

Jadunath Sarkar says in his forward to Peshwa Bajirao I and Maratha Expansion

"Bajirao was a heaven born cavalry leader.  In the long and distinguished galaxy of Peshwas, Bajirao Ballal was unequalled for the daring and originality of his genius and the volume and value of his achievements.  He was truely a carlylean Hero as king or rather as a Man of action.'  If Sir Robert Walpole created the unchallengeable position of the Prime Minister in the unwritten constitution of England, Bajirao created the same institution in the Maratha Raj at exactly the same time." 

Surendra Nath Sen says in The Military System of the Marathas 

"The lover of Mastani knew well how to appeal to the religious sentiments of his co-religionists, although he could scarcely be considered an orthodox Brahman... Shivaji had given the Marathas a common cry, and none appreciated the potency of that cry clearly than Peshwa Bajirao.  Shivaji's military reforms he would not or could not revive, but he stood forth, as Shivaji had done, as champion of Hinduism.  People of Central and Northern India saw in him a new deliverer."

According to J. N. Sarkar, nature developed in the Marathas "Self-reliance, courage, perseverance, a stern simplicity, a rough straight-forwardness, a sense of social equality and consequently pride in the dignity of man as man. " There were no social distinctions among the people and Maratha women added to the strength and patriotism of men. 

According to Elphinstone 

"They (the Marathas) are all active, laborious, hardy and persevering. If they have none of the pride and dignity of the Rajputs, they have none of their indolence or want of worldly wisdom. A Rajput warrior as long as he does not dishonour his race, seems almost indifferent to the result of any contest he is engaged in. A Maratha thinks of nothing but the result, and cares little for the means, if he can attain his object. For this purpose, he will strain his wits, renounce his pleasures and hazard his person; but has not a conception of sacrificing his life, or even his interest for a point of honour. This difference of sentiment affects the outward appearance of the two nations; there is something noble in the carriage of the ordinary Rajput, and something vulgar in that of the most distinguished Maratha. The Rajput is the most worthy antagonist - the Maratha the most formidable enemy; for he will not fail in boldness and enterprise when they are indispensible, and will always support them or supply their place, by stratagem, activity and perseverance. All this applies chiefly to the soldiery to whom more bad qualities might fairly be ascribed. The mere husbandmen are sober, frugal and industrious, and though they have a dash of national cunning, are neither turbulent nor insincere."

Warren Hastings had noted, "..The Marathas possess alone of all the people of Hindostan and the Deccan a principle of national attachment, which is strongly impressed on all the individuals of the nation.."  



The great Maratha power - Bajirao Peshwa and Rani Lakshmi Bai.


Sir Hugh Rose the commander of the British force, wrote later, "The Ranee was remarkable for her bravery, cleverness and perseverance; her generosity to her Subordinates was unbounded. These qualities, combined with her rank, rendered her the most dangerous of all the rebel leaders." A popular Indian ballad said:

How valiantly like a man fought she,
The Rani of Jhansi
On every parapet a gun she set
Raining fire of hell,
How well like a man fought the Rani of Jhansi
How valiantly and well!

"Bundeli har boli mein suni yehi kahani thi...
Khoob laDi mardaani woh toh Jhansi Wali Rani thi...." 

(source: For more on Rani Lakshmi Bai refer to chapter on Women in Hinduism and European Imperialism). For more refer to chapter on Greater India: Suvarnabhumi and Sacred Angkor and Glimpses VIII.


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