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Harmful Theory

The Aryan theory has done great harm to the world. The Nazis used a mutilated version of this theory to exterminate Jews and sundry other nationalities in Europe. It also did considerable harm to the Indian society. It created the mistaken impression among the western-educated Indians that the North is Aryan and the South, Dravidian. Some Indians rejected the Hindu religion as an "Aryan" belief. Since it was implied that the so called upper castes were somehow "Aryan" (mostly on account of loaded interpretations of certain suktas in the Rg Veda), it also accentuated the vertical schisms in the society caused by the caste system.

A noted Western archaeologist specializing in ancient India, James Schaffer of Case Western University as part of his new article, 'Migration, Philology and South Asian Archaeology', soon to appear in Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia: Evidence, Interpretation and History, edited by Bronkhorst and Deshpande, University of Michigan Press.

The Aryan invasion theory, as Schaffer notes, arose from a Euro centric view that was hostile to an Indic basis for Western civilization or peoples. The discovery of close affinities between the Indo-European languages in the eighteenth century required an explanation. By placing the original Aryans in Europe, who later migrated to India where they got absorbed by the indigenous population, it took away any need to connect the ancient Europeans with India, which was not pleasing to the colonial mindset. The theory eventually developed an anti-Semitic tone.

It was used to trace Western culture not to the Jews and their Biblical accounts but to a proposed European homeland dominated by Nordic peoples. Thus the invasion theory became one of the pillars for Nazi historians, yet strangely the Communists in India have become strong supporters of the theory and accuse those who question it of being fascists!. 

This theory is being challenged by two new discoveries, one archaeological and the other linguistic. Firstly, in the Rig Veda, the Ganges, India's sacred river, is only mentioned once, but the mythic Saraswati is praised fifty times. For a long time, the Saraswati river was indeed considered a myth, until the American satellite Landstat was able to photograph and map the bed of this magnificent river, which was nearly 14 km wide and took its source in the Himalayas. Archaeologist Paul-Henri Francfort, who studied the Saraswati region at the beginning of the Nineties, found out that the Saraswati had "disappeared", because around 2200 B.C., an immense drought reduced the whole region to aridity and famine. "Thus", he writes, "most inhabitants moved away from the Saraswati to settle on the banks of the Indus and Sutlej rivers". 


A Delhi-based columnist, Veeresh Malik, who writes for  (a website run by Pakistanis based in the US), responded to the Agra summit in this way:

“The simple single solution is that Pakistan should declare itself to be a Vedic nation. India should declare itself to be another Vedic nation. People can then go home or to the temple or the mosque to practise whatever religion they want to consider here is a Nation. It has on one side the Hindukush mountain range. It has Harrappa, translated as ‘The city protected by Lord Shiva’, which if anything was the centre of Vedic civilisation..

This nation was one of the oldest religions and cultures in the world, but thanks to colonial history books, got stuck with a myth that it was ‘invaded’ by the Aryans from the Kazakhistan-Uzbekistan region. It used to practise a religion referred to as ‘Vedic Dharm’, later on given the name ‘Hinduism’ by foreigners. The main prayer of the Vedic Dharm, also known as the Gayatri Mantra, originated from this region, and was, ‘Aum bhu-bhva svah tat sevitr varay niyem bargoh de vas ya dhi ma hi diyeo yo na prachodayat’. Or, ‘O Lord, Thou are the protector of life and of breath, dispeller of miseries and bestower of happiness. Thou are the creator and the most acceptable intelligence, possessing eternal qualities. May Thine qualities and Thy inspiration pass to us.’ Brevity. Surprisingly similar sentiments are found in the Holy Koran, as in other holy books. It has one of its main cities named after Bhagwan Ram’s son, Lav, and the main fort there was constructed by the ancient Hindu Kingdom of Singhapura, by the way. After all, how many Singapores can we have? But can anybody deny the existence and spread of the Gandhara Empire, which spread Vedic culture to Central Asia? Nahrankot, Shalkot, Pushkalavati, were these Sanskrit names with Vedic histories?”

(source: The Vedic Solution - By Rahan Ansari  - Mid-Day July 19, 2001

"But this "theory" stood on a wobbly foundation to begin with, because of its excessively literal and somewhat naive reading of the Rg Veda. And it has been getting more and more shaky ever since, with each passing year, as more and more archaeological evidence comes to light; indicating quite clearly that the "invasion", if any, could not possibly have happened in the way that earlier generations of historians had "discovered" in and between the lines of the literature studied by them; or, for that matter in the "theories" of the Aryan invasion that modern historians have since been concocting to explain away the differences between the ancient literature (what little they knew of it), and the "hard" archaeological evidence, and the "soft" interpretations based on it, that has/have now become so abundantly available." says Sudhanshu Ranade  (source: The Hindu Sunday, August 05, 2001).

Racial theories and pseudo-science continue to be vigorously employed today by the Vatican and other Western evangelist enterprises in their ongoing campaign to harvest souls for Christianity. But it is not only in the remote corners of the Third World where the unexamined "truths" of Max Muller and his missionary-scholar contemporaries are still used as weapons of propaganda. Aryan Race Theory is alive and well in the United States. 

Take, for instance, white supremacist David Duke, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (founder, 1974); who in one of his recent books speaks of the hordes of Aryans pouring into ancient  India: 


"Aryans, or Indo-Europeans (Caucasians) created the great Indian, or Hindu civilization. Aryans swept over the Himalayas to the Indian subcontinent and conquered the aboriginal people. (. . .) The word Aryan has an etymological origin in the word Arya from Sanskrit, meaning noble. The word also has been associated with gold, the noble metal, and denoted the golden-skinned invaders (as compared to the brown-skinned aboriginals) from the West. (. . .) The conquering race initiated a caste system to preserve their status and their racial identity. The Hindu word for caste is Varna, which directly translated into English means color."

Never mind that Duke is only regurgitating a spurious and discredited interpretation of history. 


The lies of Aryan Race Theory are as useful for white supremacists today as they were for the Christian missionaries a century ago in their campaign not only to convert the infidels but also to justify the colonization of "heathen Hindoostan."

(source: The Missionary's Swastika: Racism as an Evangelical Weapon - By Aravindan Neelakandan.S). Refer to Jesus Christ: Artifice for Aggression - By Sita Ram Goel

Aryan Invasion and Caste system

Colonial Mischief: De-Linking Tribes from the Hindu society by the British Empire

During the freedom struggle, Mahatma Gandhi and other nationalist leaders expressed displeasure at the mischief perpetrated by colonial administrators among backward and disadvantaged sections, and stoutly affirmed that tribals constituted an inalienable part of Hindu society.   


Balrama seated with snake hood. bronze. 8th-9th century. 

The mighty serpent Sesha, on whom Lord Vishnu rests during the intervals of creation, is reputedly a form of the god himself (Sesha-Narayana), though he is also identified as Balarama (Baladeva), elder brother of Lord Krishna. 

Animism was another disparaging term, coined by the Colonial British in India, used to denote the worship of spirits and forces of nature as opposed to a ‘true’ (monotheistic) God.

Watch video - The Myth of Aryan invasion theory - Part I and Part II and Part III and Myth of Aryan Dravidian Divide and Dwaraka - A Lost City of Lord Sri Krishna.  Watch Scientific verification of Vedic knowledge


Colonial rhetoric not withstanding, tribals have never been passive recipients of Hindu upper class (what Max Mueller labeled as Brhamanical) cultural models, but have rather contributed actively and enormously to the infinite variety of India’s civilization from its primordial beginnings. The colonial state insisted that Brahmins, peasants, untouchables and tribals were separate groups with distinct customs and beliefs, and that Brahmins sought to subjugate all others to establish their hegemony. Special attempts were made to delink tribals from the main body of Hindu society through imposition of racial categories and subterfuges in Census classifications. 

Creating a Division in Hindu Society
Animism  - Disparaging terms to denote Nature Worship?

Colonial anthropologists introduced a division in society by designating or ‘scheduling’ whole groups as tribes. Disregarding centuries-old intimate ties between caste Hindu and casteless tribal society, they classified the tribals as ‘Animist’. Animism was another disparaging term, used to denote the worship of spirits and forces of nature as opposed to a ‘true’ (monotheistic) god. 

This bias persists in Western thought to this day, and rather than being debunked as a phoney concept, animism is even now described as the belief that natural phenomenon are endowed with ‘life’ or ‘spirit,’ and as the tendency to attribute supernatural or spiritual characteristics to plants, geological features, climatic phenomena and so on.  

Little wonder then that Mahatma Gandhi bemoaned: “We were strangers to this sort of classification – animists, aborigines, etc., but we have learnt from the English rulers.” When the missionary Dr. Chesterman queried if this objection applied to the ‘animist’ aboriginal races of the Kond hills, Gandhi insisted, “Yes, it does apply, because I know that in spite of being described as animists these tribes have from time immemorial been absorbed in Hinduism. They are, like the indigenous medicine, of the soil, and their roots lie deep there.”  

In 1901, the British government directed census officers to designate the religion of Adivasis as “animism.” Census officers found that it was virtually impossible to distinguish between an animist and a Hindu in practice, as they all worshipped God in many forms. The result was that a community was listed as “animist” in one census and as “Hindu” in another. 

H H Risley concluded that it was impossible to differentiate between Hinduism and Animism as each merged imperceptibly into the other. Hinduism itself was animism more or less transformed by philosophy.” E A Gait observed in his 1901 Report on the Lower Provinces of Bengal and their Feudatories: “The dividing lines between Hinduism and Animism is uncertain. Hinduism does not, like Christianity and Islam, demand of its votaries the rejection of all other religious beliefs; and …amongst many of the lower castes of Hindus the real working religion derives its inspiration, not from the Vedas, but from the non-Aryan beliefs of the aborigines…” 

Tormented at the near impossibility of such an endeavor, Sedgwick, Superintendent of the Census of 1921 for Bombay, asserted: “I have, therefore no hesitation in saying that Animism as a religion should be entirely abandoned, and that all those hitherto classed as Animists should be grouped with Hindus at the next census.”


The Mahabharata epitomizes the Indian genre of historical literature, known as Itihasa. It is the country’s most famous history and epic poem. The German Indologist Hermann Oldenberg observed: “In the Mahabharata breathe the united soul of India and the individual souls of her people.” The Mahabharata itself states that that which is not found here cannot be found elsewhere, so comprehensive is its treatment of dharma and the philosophy of life.  

A warped notion of India’s pre-colonial past is the thus a continuing legacy of colonialism. Crispin Bates states that race rested upon the unshakeable premise that the modern European, particularly the Briton, was superior to all other races. Racism is apparently the academic contribution of European biologists, and this fact may explain the propagation of racial theories as ‘scientific.’  In the 1830’s the American joined the racial debate with the ‘science’ of anthropometry. The physician S G Morton and theoretician Louis Agassiz justified slavery by asserting that the human races were created as entirely separate species. He ranked Whites as the most intelligent race, American Indians as less intelligent. Hindus as even less intelligent; and Negroes as the stupidest. 

It was from such shoddy myths that the British developed more sophisticated racial theories about castes and tribes. Caste was also used as an instrument of social engineering. Some of most difficult tribes were declared ‘criminal’ and subjected to laws such as the notorious Criminal Tribes Act of 1871.  

Colonial anthropologists influenced by the race theories arising out of their intervention in Africa, sought to apply similar categories to India as well. Determined to fit a square peg into a round hole, they arbitrarily labeled large numbers of autochthonous groups as ‘tribes’ and thus created an entirely new social category, even though the word ‘tribe’ did not have an equivalent in several native Indian languages. Moving in concert with highly motivated missionaries, the formally religiously “neutral” officials of the East India Company executed masterly strokes to delink whole sections of society, such as tribals and Harijans (Dalits), from Hindu society. 

(source: Adi Deo Arya Devata – By Sandhya Jain p. 2 - 235). For more refer to Glimpses XV. For more refer to chapter on European Imperialism and Conversion and Nature Worship. Also refer to Towards Balkanisation, V: Adivasis - By Varsha Bhosle - Refer to Jesus Christ: Artifice for Aggression - By Sita Ram Goel


Dr. Ambedkar stands along with Sri Aurobindo and Swami Vivekananda in rejecting the racial interpretation of the caste system. But Indian 'secularists', Marxists as well as British colonialists accept the racial interpretation of the caste system. 

It is an irony that the followers of E. V. Ramasamy who call themselves rationalists often share the dais with anti-evolutionist Christian and Muslim fundamentalists. 

Indian historian Devendra Swarup has remarked:

"Wilson, Max Muller and Whitney all tried to trace the origin of the caste system in the Aryan invasion theory and thus declared the Brahmins as the pure descendents of the Aryan invaders inventing the caste system for perpetuation of their supremacy (over the native inhabitants)"  

In support of this line, attempts were made to equate caste with race and classify the entire Indian population along several racial types by measuring imaginary features of their skulls and noses. From such pseudo-science, it followed that the lower castes and the Dravidians, both victims of the Aryan "oppressors," were to be encouraged to rebel and reject every "Aryan import," beginning of course with Hinduism - such indeed has been the ideological foundation of Tamil Nadu's Dravidian movement. 

Moreover, Christianity, shown to be more "egalitarian," was projected as the natural "liberating" force for those sections of Indian society, among which mass conversions did take place as a result. 

According to columnist Sandhya Jain

"The determined bid by Christian evangelists to take caste-based discrimination in India to the UN World Conference against Racism (WCAR) has inspired leftists, liberals and human rights activists into a frenzy of verbiage and sanctimoniousness. Yet, for all the anti-caste rhetoric we have been subjected to these past few months, nothing substantial has emerged to assuage bruised Dalit consciousness and offer a way out of the vicious cycle of caste-based violence that has undeniably increased in recent times. Hence, while the run up to Durban has put the international spotlight on the Dalit issue, there has been no internal soul-searching on the question."

The Christian demand to include caste as a form of racism aims at overcoming the resistance of modern educated Dalits to convert to Christianity. Indeed, the American pediatrician, Michael Bamshad's recent claim about the European paternity of upper caste Indians and Asian paternity of the lower castes was a pathetic attempt to provide a 'scientific' link between race and caste. Since the study was shoddily executed, its co-authors dissociated themselves from it when challenged by fellow academics. Its purpose, of course, was to equate caste and racial discrimination, so that the Indian Government could be compelled under international pressure to extend the benefits of reservations in education and jobs to Dalit Christians.

(source: Dalits through the looking glass - By Sandhya Jain). Refer to Jesus Christ: Artifice for Aggression - By Sita Ram Goel


The discredited Aryan invasion theory has again been taken up by Michael Bamshad of Utah University.

Indian Caste Groups Have Differing Genetic Relationships to Europeans and Asians - By Michael Bamshad - May 11, 2001 – A new study of genetic data shows that the ancestors of Indian men came from different parts of the world than those of Indian women and produced modern upper caste Indian populations that are genetically more similar to Europeans and lower caste populations that are more similar to Asians....

Commenting on this study, author, Dr. N. S. Rajaram says: 

"Now, thanks to Bamshad & Co, this discredited notion as well as the Marxist Class-to-Caste Law has become scientific! If their theory (based on a sample from Vishakapatnam) has any validity at all, then Brahmins and Kshatriyas all over India must have some common physical features indicating their European ancestry. But they do not. For example, Brahmins and Kshatriyas in Kerala look like Keralites, those from Assam look like Assamese and those from Kashmir look like Kashmiris. This diversity goes to show that the Indian population is ancient, having lived in the same region long enough to have adopted to the environment by natural selection. What they have in common are certain cultural traits modified by regional factors like language, dress and food. These are acquired characteristics that have nothing to do with genetics.

These Utah researchers should perhaps next apply their methodology to Christians. They can then discover Catholic genes and Protestant genes. And among Protestants they may further find Anglican genes, Lutheran genes, Methodist genes, Baptist genes-all the way down to Mormon genes in the Mormon capital of Salt Lake City, Utah. Their methodology is the kind of numerology that can be used to prove anything anywhere. In plain English, their science is just so much hot air." 

(source: Caste and Science: Hot Air and Cold Fusion - N.S. Rajaram).


The cradle that is India - By Subhash Kak

Ideas about early Indian history continue to play an important role in political ideology of contemporary India. On the one side are the Left and Dravidian parties, which believe that invading Aryans from the northwest pushed the Dravidians to south India and India's caste divisions are a consequence of that encounter. Even the development of Hinduism is seen through this anthropological lens. This view is essentially that of colonial historians which was developed over a hundred years ago.

Now, in an important book titled
The Real Eve: Modern Man's Journey out of Africa (New York: Carroll and Graf Publishers, 2003), the prominent Oxford University scholar
Stephen Oppenheimer has synthesised the available genetic evidence together with climatology and archaeology with conclusions which have bearing on the debate about the early population of India. This work has received great attention in the West, and it will also interest Indians tremendously.

Much of Oppenheimer's theory is based on recent advances in studies of mitochondrial DNA, inherited through the mother, and Y chromosomes, inherited by males from the father. Oppenheimer makes the case that whereas Africa is the cradle of all mankind; India is the cradle of all non-African peoples. Man left Africa approximately 90,000 years ago, heading east along the Indian Ocean, and established settlements in India. It was only during a break in glacial activity 50,000 years ago, when deserts turned into grasslands, that people left India and headed northwest into the Russian steppes and on into Eastern Europe, as well as northeast through China and over the now submerged Bering Strait into the Americas.

Oppenheimer concludes with two extraordinary conclusions: 'First, that the Europeans' genetic homeland was originally in South Asia in the Pakistan/Gulf region over 50,000 years ago; and second, that the Europeans' ancestors followed at least two widely separated routes to arrive, ultimately, in the same cold but rich garden. The earliest of these routes was the Fertile Crescent. The second early route from South Asia to Europe may have been up the Indus into Kashmir and on to Central Asia, where perhaps more than 40,000 years ago hunters first started bringing down game as large as mammoths.'

This synthesis of genetic evidence makes it possible to understand the divide between the north and the south Indian languages. It appears that the Dravidian languages are more ancient, and the Aryan languages evolved in India over thousands of years before migrations took them to central Asia and westward to Europe. The proto-Dravidian languages had also, through the ocean route, reached northeast Asia, explaining the connections between the Dravidian family and the Korean and the Japanese.

Perhaps this new understanding will encourage Indian politicians to get away from the polemics of who the original inhabitants of India are, since that should not matter one way or the other in the governance of the country. Indian politics has long been plagued by the Aryan invasion narrative, which was created by English scholars of the 19th century; it is fitting that another Englishman, Stephen Oppenheimer, should announce its demise.

(source: The cradle that is India - By Subhash Kak -

Also refer to

DNA Exposes India's Past

Mitochondrial DNA is passed on from one generation to next through mothers. DNA analysis allows scientists to trace our ancestry.  Recent studies of different people of the world has shown that humans originated in East
Africa and migrated north to Europe and west to India between 200,000 and 50,000 years ago.  The maternal lineages of the present day Indian is unique and very old.  There is some admixture with outsiders, especially along border regions.  But there is very small differences between Indians, whether they speak Indo-European or Dravidian language and whether they are of tribal origin or not. 

Prof. Richard Villems of Estonia believes that "the Aryan Invasion theory, in its classical form, is  dead already". This theory has very little archeological, astronomical, or literary support. The main purpose of inventing such a theory was to justify British domination of the subcontinent and create a class of educated (?) Indians who despised every thing 'Indian' and help the British rule over India. Now it is up to Hindus to weed out the vast array of myths generated by Aryan Invasion Theory.....

(source: Abstract of an article on "DNA Exposes India's Past", Hinduism Today, July/August 2001, P. 57).

Vasishtha Head - Vedic Aryan Head

In 1990, the Journal of Indo-European Studies carried an article entitled "Analysis of an Indo-European Vedic head- Fourth Millennium B.C."

The life size head has a hairstyle that the Vedas describe ad being unique to the family of Vasistha, one of the great seers who composed parts of the Rig-Veda. The hair is oiled and coiled with a tuft on the right, and their ears are riveted...Carbon -14 tests.. indicate that it was cast around 3,700 B.C.

This questions the Aryan Invasion Theory.

The Empire of the Soul: Some Journeys into India - By Paul William Roberts  pg 306.).

Major anthropology find reported in India

Scientists report they have found evidence of the oldest human habitation in India, dating to 2 million years, on the banks of the Subarnarekha River. The 30-mile stretch between Ghatshila in the province of Jharkhand and Mayurbhanj in Orissa has reportedly yielded tools that suggest the site could be unique in the world, with evidence of human habitation without a break from 2 million years ago to 5,000 B.C.

Anthropologist S. Chakraborty told the Calcutta Telegraph: "There are no signs of terra incognito (a break in the continuum) in the Subarnarekha valley, unlike any other site in India. Some of the heavier tools resemble those found in the East African stone-age shelters, used by the Australopithecus." Chakraborty said the uninterrupted habitation could make the site more important than even the Aldovai Gorge in East Africa, the Somme Valley of France, Stonehenge in England, the Narmada basin in Madhya Pradesh and the Velamadurai- Pallavaram rectangle in Tamil Nadu.

(source: Major anthropology find reported in India - UPI).

Irish Scholars: Irish and Indian the Same People ?
By Gerhard Herm

Bryan Mcmahon, historian, scholar of folklore, teacher, a well known poet and much else besides, likes to test his favorite theories in
practice and to retail them with all the skill and timing of a seasoned performer. He told me: Whenever I meet an Indian I take him to one side and hum the first lines of an Irish folk-song. Then I ask him to continue the melody as he likes; and, believe it or not, almost every time he will sing it to the end as if he already knew the song. Isn't that astonishing?

For me it is an indication that Indians and Irishmen have a common past; that, as I put it in one of my plays, "We Celts came from the Mysterious East."

The late Myles Dillon, formerly Prof of Celtic at U of Dublin cites a whole series of further astonishing parallels between the culture of the Aryan Indians and the Irish Druids. (Druid from Dru=Oak Wid or Ved=Wisdom) His main contention is that in both cases there was a distinct class of scholars; the Brahmins in India, the highest reps in the Varna system; while in Ireland there were the 'wise men of the oak'. Dillon reckons that the Brahmins and the Druids should be equated because they carried out their profession-teaching and study, poetry and law-in a similar way.

There is evidence that this is so.

The principles by which justice was administered were similar, indeed identical with those in India. There a father with daughters but no sons could order one of them to take a man of his choice and produce a legal heir. beyond the Hindu Kush mountains, such a girl was called putrika (she who takes the son's place) and in old Ireland ban-chomarba (female-heir). But who if not the Continental Celts can have told the Irish what was going on in the far east? Dillon further notes similarities: in both cultures there were 8 different forms of marriage, from arranged marriages, marriage by purchase and love- matches to kidnapping. In both cultures there was a strict distinction between inherited and earned property and when contracts were drawn up there was an exact statement as to who was to provide what guarantees before obtaining what he wanted. In one case it was the Brahmins and in the other the Druids who administered these principles.

All this, Dillon says, suggests that the Celtic Druids indeed represented the same tradition as the Hindu Brahmins.... If we continue
to feel our way along the parallels between India and Gaul, sooner or later we sense that the Druids were also political leaders, just as the Brahmins clearly stood above generals and warriors.

The Druids, Caesar says, taught that "souls do not disappear but wander from one body to another'. Lucan in his Pharsalia-a verse epic about the Roman civil war-addressed them with the words: 'If we understand you aright, death is only a pause in a long life. 'Maybe he was right; if so, did the belief come from the Indo-European source that produced the Brahmins and the Druids? Or is it chance that lands as far apart as India and France produced a belief in metempsychosis? Does the fact that according to Scythian custom, crests depicted Eagles, wolves, bears as ancestors reflect the conviction of these people that the spirit of the dead goes through many life-forms, human and animal, as the Hindus believe? If so, do the Russian steppe people form a bridge between the cultures of the Far East and the Far West?...

...Ancient Author Diodorus's own most adventurous  suggestion-'they still hold Pythgoras's belief in the immortality of the soul and
rebirth.'...But since Pythagoras, with his strong influences from the east, was among the few great Hellinic philosophers who believed in the possibility of life after death, they could only conclude that his belief was related to the blond barbarians, (The Celts) or that they had taken theirs from him.

The Celts - By Gerhard Herm).

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