Page < 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >

Evidence from Archaeology

Soon after the discovery of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, their remote antiquity signaled the start of a virtual comedy of errors. The myth of the bloody end of the Harappan civilization at the hands of the fierce Aryans came from a man who had directed the Archaeological Survey of India from 1943 to 1948. The most glaring inconsistencies the owners of the said skeletons were later proved by the great U.S. archaeologist George F. Dales to have lived in different periods. Moreover, neither weapons nor any signs of war were found at the supposed sites of the "mythical massacre," as he called it:

 "Where are the burned fortresses, the arrow heads, weapons, pieces of armor, the smashed chariots, and bodies of the invaders and defenders." asked Dales, who, in 1964 conducted a detailed study of Wheeler's stratigraphy. "Despite the extensive excavations at the largest Harappan sites, there is not a single bit of evidence that can be brought forth as unconditional proof of an armed conquest and the destruction on the supposed scale of the Aryan invasion." U.S. anthropologist, K. A. R. Kennedy showed that the supposed injuries left on the bones of some skeletons had actually healed well before death. As a result, "the destruction of the Indus cities by invading tribes of Aryans, says the U.S. archaeologist Richard H. Meadow, "has long since been discounted by serious scholars" (though some of our textbooks still swear by it ). 

Not a single finding in the Indus-Saraswati region can be associated with the ingress of an Aryan people (or any other people, for that matter) - neither pottery nor utensils nor tools nor weapons nor graves nor any form of art. Oddly, the "invaders" left no trace of their arrival.  J. M. Kenoyer, who is still pursuing excavations at Harappa:

"There is no archaeological or biological evidence for invasions or mass migrations into the Indus valley between the end of the Harappan phase, about 1900 B.C. and the beginning of the Early Historic period around 600 B.C. "

Jim G. Shaffer, another U.S. archaeologist with first-hand experience of Harappan site:

"Current archaeological data do not support the existence of an Indo-Aryan or European invasion into South Asia any time in the pre- or protohistoric periods."

Many Indian archaeologists share those views. For instance S. R. Rao " "There is no indication of any invasion of Indus towns nor is any artefact attributable to the so-called 'invaders.' 

Or again, B. B. Lal: "The supporters of the Aryan-invasion theory have not been able to cite even a single example where is evidence of 'invaders.' represented either by weapons of warfare or even of cultural remains left by them." Similar assertions could be quoted from other noted archaeologists such as (alphabetically) Madhav Acharya, R.S. Bisht, Dilip K. Chakrabarti, M.K. Dhavalikar, S. P. Gupta, Jagat Pati Joshi, V.N. Mishra, A.M. Shastri, K.M. Srivastava, V. S. Wakankar and others.

Despite this remarkable agreement, a few historians and archaeologist have opted to stick to the invasion construct, partly as a facile explaination of the linguistic kinship between Sanskrit and Indo-European languages, and partly because it is not easy to demolish a whole structure accepted as gospel truth for a lifetime. So, to account to its absence of evidence those scholars have had to tone down the old invasion, which now becomes a mere "migration" or "small bands" of Indo-Aryans, in a "series of waves" confession of failure. 

With a touch of irony, J. F. Jarrige, the French archaeologist who has led excavations at Mehrgarh, remarks: "Phoenix-like, the theory of the invaders, preferably Indo-Europeans, always rises from its ashes." 

(source: The Invasion That Never Was - By Michel Danino and Sujata Nahar  


"The Harappan civilization mysteriously disappeared in 1900 BC, after almost 2,000 years of continuous existence. Some researchers have argued that the civilization slowly declined because of changing trade patterns; others, now mostly discredited, blamed Aryan invaders from the north. Prasad and Nur blame earthquakes. Last January, a catastrophic earthquake struck the southern edge of the former Harappan territory, a coastal area near the border between India and Pakistan. In 1819, a similar earthquake raised an 80 to 100-kilometer (50 to 62 mile) ridge of earth about 20 feet (6 meters), creating an artificial dam known as the "Allah Bund" (God's Dam). Both earthquakes are evidence that the Harappan region, though not near a traditional fault zone, is seismically active."

(source: Ancient civilizations shaken by quakes, say Stanford scientists - Space Daily).

And now a team of geologists from the Stanford University in California believes that the real blame probably lies with the massive earthquakes that struck the region in the past.

Manika Prasad, a research associate in the Rock Physics Laboratory at Stanford, has catalogued and studied the ancient earthquakes that shook the Indian sub-continent. He now believes that it was a massive earthquake that shook the foundations of the Harappan civilisation, taking it to the brink of extinction.

The Harappan civilisation mysteriously disappeared in 1900 BC, after almost 2,000 years of existence.

Some researchers have argued that the civilization slowly declined because of changing trade patterns; others, now mostly discredited, blamed Aryan invaders from the north.

(source: Did quakes make Harappa disappear? 

Watch video - The Myth of Aryan invasion theory - Part I and Part II and Part III and Myth of Aryan Dravidian Divide and Dwaraka - A Lost City of Lord Sri Krishna.


City older than Mohenjodaro unearthed

Indian scientists have made an archaeological find dating back to 7500 BC suggesting the world's oldest cities came up about 4,000 years earlier than is currently believed, a top government official said on Wednesday.

The scientists found pieces of wood, remains of pots, fossil bones and what appeared like construction material just off the coast of Surat, Science and Technology Minister Murli Manohar Joshi told a news conference.
"Some of these artefacts recovered by the NIOT (National Institute of Ocean Technology) from the site such as the log of wood date back to 7500 BC, which is indicative of a very ancient culture in the present Gulf of Cambay, that got submerged subsequently," Joshi said.

Current belief is that the first cities appeared around 3500 BC in the valley of Sumer, where Iraq now stands, a statement issued by the government said. "We can safely say from the antiquities and the acoustic images of the geometric structures that there was human activity in the region more than 9,500 years ago (7500 BC)," S. N. Rajguru, an independent archaeologist, said.

The findings, if confirmed, will dislodge the Harappan Civilisation dating back to 2500 BC as India's oldest civilization.


Oldest Harappan signboard at Kutch township

Meticulous planning and architectural brilliance in the layout of the city are the established and striking features of the Harappan civilisation. 

Recent excavations at the small township of Dholavira, in Kutch, Gujarat, have presented to the world some of the oldest stadiums and sign board.  

One of the stadiums is huge. The multipurpose structure, with terraced seats for spectators, around 800 feet in length (around 283 metres) can accommodate as many as 10,000 persons. The other stadium is much smaller in size.  

"It is believed that the bigger stadium was used for a variety of purposes, maybe for makeshift bazaars. This would be similar to exhibition grounds coming up these days," said former joint director general of Archeological Survey of India, Dr R S Bisht who was delivering a special lecture on "Dholavira revisited' at Panjab University on Wednesday.  

Apart from the world's first stadiums, Bisht also talked about what could be the world's oldest signboard which was also discovered at the site. The "signboard", with undecipherable inscriptions of the Indus valley civilisation, dates back to the 3000 BC to 1500 BC.  It is believed that the stone signboard was hung on a wooden plank in front of the gate. This could be the oldest signboard known to us," said Bisht. The excavations began under Bisht's stewardship in 1990.  

The dimensions of the town of Dholavira (777.1 metres in length and 668.7 meters in width) establishes that the Harappans had great knowledge of trigonometry.  

They were also mathematical experts as all the dimensions at the site are based on squares and cubes, he added. "The site is between the two rivulets, Mansa and Manhar. Harappans had also built dams to conserve the precious commodity of water," added Bisht.  He also put up a slide show of the remains of the extensive water reservoirs, castle and roads.  He said, "Harappans never allowed vehicular traffic inside their cities which explains the condition of their roads which remained as they were for a long time," he said.  

While natural calamities are widely believed to be the reason for the decline of civilisations, for Dholavira it is believed that the damage was due to frequent earthquakes. "The first quake hit the township around 2800 BC, the second around 2500 BC, and the third around 2000 BC," said Bisht.

(source: Oldest Harappan signboard at Kutch township -


Skeletons, script found at ancient burial site in Tamil Nadu

May 25 2004 - An urn containing a human skull and bones unearthed by the Archaeological Survey of India at Adhichanallur, near Tirunelveli town in Tamil Nadu. Twelve of these urns (below) contain human skeletons. Three of them, which may be 2,800 years old, bear inscriptions that resemble the early Tamil Brahmi script. 

In spectacular finds, the Archaeological Survey of India, Chennai Circle, has unearthed a dozen 2,800-year-old human skeletons intact in urns at Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli in Tamil Nadu. Three of these urns contain writing resembling the early Tamil Brahmi script. The dozen urns containing the skeletons form a part of about 100 fully intact urns unearthed in various trenches at the site, where excavation is under way. The urns were found at a depth of two to three metres. The finds may revolutionise theories about the origin of ancient culture in Tamil Nadu and the origin of writing in South Asia. 

T. Satyamurthy, Superintending Archaeologist, ASI, Chennai Circle, the director of excavation at Adichanallur, said: "People generally think that megalithic culture is the earliest culture in South India, especially in Tamil Nadu. In our excavation [at Adichanallur], we have come across a culture earlier than the megalithic period." The megalithic period in South India ranges from 3rd century B.C. to 3rd century A.D.  At Adichanallur, pottery belonging to the early historic period, which stretches from 3rd century B.C. to 3rd century A.D., was found on the upper layers of the trenches and the urns were found below. 

So the discoveries at Adichanallur may go back to 7th or 8th century B.C., probably earlier than the Sangam period, Dr. Satyamurthy said.

Skeletons, script found at ancient burial site in Tamil Nadu - For more refer to Vedic Roots of Early Tamil Culture - By Michel Danino.


9,500-Year-Old City Found Underwater Off India

Discovery in Bay of Cambay Will Force Western Archaeologists to Rewrite History.

The civilization of Ancient Egypt occurred in a past so remote that today it seems mystical. The pyramids and other temples, with their hieroglyphics depicting a flourishing civilization, have a mysterious, almost magical appeal. It seems inconceivable that people of an advanced society could have walked those ancient streets.

Now, it was announced in January, a civilization has been uncovered that would have appeared just as ancient to the people who built the pyramids as the pyramids seem to us.

According to marine scientists in India, archaeological remains of this lost city have been discovered 36 metres (120 feet) underwater in the Gulf of Cambay off the western coast of India. And carbon dating says that they are 9,500 years old.

This news completely contradicts the position of most Western historians and archaeologists, who (because it did not fit their theories) have always rejected, ignored, or suppressed evidence of an older view of mankind's existence on planet Earth. Human civilization is now provably much more ancient than many have believed.

According to the BBC's Tom Housden, reporting on the Cambay find:

The vast city — which is five miles long and two miles wide — is believed to predate the oldest known remains in the subcontinent by more than 5,000 years.

The site was discovered by chance last year by oceanographers from India's National Institute of Ocean Technology, who were conducting a survey of pollution.

Using sidescan sonar, which sends a beam of sound waves down to the bottom of the ocean, they identified huge geometrical structures at a depth of 120 feet.

Debris recovered from the site — including construction material, pottery, sections of walls, beads, sculpture, and human bones and teeth — has been carbon dated and found to be nearly 9,500 years old (BBC article).

Several reports confirm this estimate. Housden added, "The whole model of the origins of civilisation will have to be remade from scratch."

Unheard-of Scope of Cambay Ruins

The BBC article tells us that the remains of this ancient city stand upon "enormous foundations." Marine archaeologists discovered them with a technology known as "sub-bottom profiling."

Author and filmmaker Graham Hancock, an authority on archaeological investigations of ancient civilizations, reportedly said that the evidence was compelling. For example, he said that the oceanographers had found two large blocks that were larger than anything that's ever been found. "Cities on this scale," Hancock told BBC Online, "are not known in the archaeological record until roughly 4,500 years ago when the first big cities begin to appear in Mesopotamia.

Theorists are postulating that the area where this city exists was submerged when the ice caps melted at the end of the last Ice Age.

"A month ago in mid-January [2002]," says Hancock on his website, "marine scientists in India announced they had sonar images of square and rectangular shapes about 130 feet down off the northwestern coast of India in the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay). . . . [There are] sonar shapes with 90-degree angles. The Indian Minister of Science and Technology ordered that the site be dredged. What was found has surprised archaeologists around the world" (

Large Symbols Like Peruvian Signs Found on Gujarat Hillside 

Vadodara, Gujarat, India. August 6, 2006: Geologists have discovered a striking archaeological feature on a hillock in the Kutch district of the western Indian state of Gujarat. This feature is shaped like the Roman numeral VI. Each arm of this feature is a trench that is about two meters wide, two meters deep and more than 100 meters long. The feature has evoked the curiosity of archaeologists because such signs have mostly been observed so far in Peru. The team, led by Dr RV Karanth, a former professor of geology at the Maharaja Sayajirao University in Vadodara, Gujarat, has been involved in a palaeoseismological study of the Kutch region for the past 11 years Palaeoseismology involves the study of sediments, landforms and other geological evidence of past earthquakes to unravel their history and determine the nature and occurrence of present-day earthquakes. This feature was discovered at a hillock 3km from the sleepy oasis township of Khavda, which is also known as the gateway to the Rann of Kutch, an extensive salt marsh of western India and southeast Pakistan between the Gulf of Kutch and the Indus river delta.

Dr. Karanth says such trenches have not been noticed elsewhere in the region. Archaeologists, he says, can now pursue further research. Geometric lines and animal shapes etched into the desert plain by people of the Nazca civilisation (AD 1-700) of Peru are well known. "But such signs on hill-slopes have not been reported from Peru," says Dr. Karanth. He says that one of the prominent explanations given for the Peruvian features is that they may have been constructed to make astronomical observations and calculations. "The Tropic of Cancer passes through Kutch. So if this structure is man-made, it is likely that the slope of the hillock was utilized for making certain astronomical calculations in the past," explains the geologist. Interestingly, there are numerous indications to suggest that Harappans were well-versed in astronomy. The straight streets of that time were oriented in the cardinal directions - east, west, north and south. Linkages between ancient Harappan scripts and latter Vedic texts also suggest that Harappan priest-astronomers tracked the progress of various planets and mapped the sky. Dr. Karanth has also discovered ruins of a fort-wall, houses, storage tank and a temple on the hilltop.

(source: Large Symbols Like Peruvian Signs Found on Gujarat Hillside -

The Find Includes Human Remains

Linda Moulton Howe, who investigates occurrences of this type worldwide, interviewed Michael Cremo about this new discovery. Cremo is a researcher and author of the book Forbidden Archaeology. Cremo, Howe said, has visited India and attended local meetings about the Cambay site.

"Within the past few months," Cremo told her, "the engineers began some dredging operations there and they pulled up human fossil bones, fossil wood, stone tools, pieces of pottery, and many other things that indicated that it indeed was a human habitation site that they had. And they were able to do more intensive sonar work there and were able to identify more structures. They appeared to have been laid out on the bank of a river that had been flowing from the Indian subcontinent out into that area."

According to Howe:

Even if we don't know what the cultural background of the people is, if it does happen to be a city that is 9500 years old, that is older than the Sumerian civilization by several thousand years. It is older than the Egyptian, older than the Chinese. So it would radically affect our whole picture of the development of urban civilization on this planet.

Now, if it further happens that additional research is able to identify the culture of the people who lived in that city that's now underwater — if it turns out they are a Vedic people, which I think is quite probable given the location of this off the coast of India — I think that would radically change the whole picture of Indian history which has basically been written by Western archaeologists.

(source: 9,500-Year-Old City Found Underwater Off India).

Indian civilisation '9,000 years old'  

Marine scientists in India say an archaeological site off India's western coast may be up to 9,000 years old

The revelation comes about 18 months after acoustic images from the sea-bed suggested the presence of built-up structures resembling the ancient Harappan civilisation, which dates back around 4,000 years. The Harappan civilisation is the oldest in the subcontinent. Although Palaeolithic sites dating back around 20,000 years have been found on the coast of India's western state of Gujarat before, this is the first time there are indications of man-made structures as old as 9,500 years found deep beneath the sea surface.

Known as the Gulf of Cambay, the area has been subject to a great deal of archaeological interest due to its proximity to another ancient submerged site - Dwaraka - in the nearby Gulf of Kutch. But investigations in the Cambay region have been made more difficult by strong tidal currents running at around two to three metres per second. They impede any sustained underwater studies. Marine scientists led by the Madras-based National Institute of Ocean Technology said they got around this problem by taking acoustic images off the sea-bed and using dredging equipment to extract artefacts.

Gulf of Cambay has a city older than Sumer

Watch video - The Myth of Aryan invasion theory - Part I and Part II and Part III and Myth of Aryan Dravidian Divide and Dwaraka - A Lost City of Lord Sri Krishna.

Marine archaeology and the study of the past

What was found in the Gulf? Several rectangular to round pieces made of rock and mortar with perfectly shaped holes (some rectangular), obviously man-made; stone cylindrical rods with vertical holes, probably used as necklaces (as in Harappa); rolled rods and well-turned cylindrical rock pieces; fused rock articles; thin triangular and round rock pieces; chert blades, cut into long flat pieces; macro tools resembling axes, stone blades, choppers, chisel, etc. and micro tools made of basalt, chalcedony and chert, besides a pestle and fish hook; ladle-shaped objects made of agate or steatite; semi-precious stones and beads made of opal, agate, carnelian, steatite, quartz, malachite, and topaz; potsherds, including sun-dried gray and kiln-baked red.

But these were not all. Human and animal (deer and duck) figurines, a hand with what appears to be a carving of a bangle, a few fossilised human bones and a flat rock piece with a sort of script have made the finds more exciting.

Paleo channels 20 to 40 metres deep and over 9 kms long, adjoined by basement-like features of major structures in a grid pattern, resembling an urban habitation site, were observed. These include a 40m x 24m tank-like depression with steps leading to a deeper portion (like the Great Bath of Mohenjo Daro?), a 200m x 45m platform-like structure, a 79m x 50m buried structure and what appears to be a 41m x 20m wall, with a relief of about 3m above the seabed. Most important, a chunk of carbonised teak wood was picked up, which was dated using 14C (Carbon dating) methodology by the Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleo Botany, Lucknow, and the National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, gave an interim calibrated age of 8150-7650 BP (before present).
This is the information that came in for much public flak and acrimony, with some historians and media stories even casting doubts on the authenticity of the scientific testing and the results, an untenable accusation. Foreign laboratories upheld the results, a certification which should not have been necessary, and about which there has been no response from the doubters. Another reason given for doubt was that the wood could have floated into the area from anywhere else. But the scientists present at the workshop debunked that objection, showing how the current patterns meant that the water circulates within the Gulf and is not exchanged with the Arabian Sea.

Marine archaeology in India is still at its infancy. It needs up-to-date scientific equipment, such as remote controlled robots, and trained divers and diving equipment. All this costs money.

Marine archaeology and the study of the past - By Nanditha Krishn -

Aryan Invasion Bites the Dust

In the rewriting of Indian history that is currently underway, the Seminar on Aryan/Non-Aryan Contributions held on June 23 – 25 at the Center of Indic Studies, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth is likely to prove seminal. At the Seminar, now becoming known as the Dartmouth Conference, advocates of the Aryan theories, including the Aryan invasion, were forced to confront data from a wide range of sources including historical, astronomical, genetic and archaeological that simply could not be brushed away by appealing to linguistics.

Most telling of all was the genetic evidence pointing to the fact that Indians have lived where they are today for the better part of 50,000 years and no Aryan invasion took place. The genetic data was presented by two leading workers in the field— Dr. Peter Underhill of Stanford University and Dr. V.K. Kashyap of the National Institute of Biologicals of New Delhi. Their findings overwhelmingly contradict the notion of any Aryan invasion and/or migration for the origin of Indian civilization.

Dr. B.B. Lal, India’s senior most archaeologist, made a masterly presentation summarizing the whole gamut of archaeological discoveries from the Sarasvati river to the various Harappan sites pointing out how they bear the stamp of Vedic ideas and thoroughly contradict the Aryan invasion. Rajaram highlighted the fact that the Rigveda came before the Harappan civilization, and Harappan archaeology belongs to later phase of the Vedic civilization, the period that produced the Brahmanas, Upanishads and the Sutras.

All this means that Harappan archaeology records the material remains of the Vedic civilization, especial of the later phase, when the ideas found the Veda Samhitas saw exposition, consolidation and codification in the Vedantic literature. This is clear from the Vedic symbols like the svastika, om, ashvattha leaves and others found on Harappan artifacts especially the seals.

(source:  Aryan Invasion Bites the Dust - By N S Rajaram -


Lost city found off Indian coast

An ancient underwater city has been discovered off the coast of south-eastern India. Divers from India and England made the discovery based on the statements of local fishermen and the old Indian legend of the Seven Pagodas.

The ruins, which are off the coast of Mahabalipuram, cover many square miles and seem to prove that a major city once stood there. A further expedition to the region is now being arranged which will take place at the beginning of 2003.  

(source: Lost city found off Indian coast - BBC April 11, 02).

Mahabalipuram remains open debate on origin of civilization
By Shyam Bhatia - LONDON, Aug 15 

This hidden underwater city off Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu had previously been the stuff of legend. Some fishermen had always spoken of the exotic temple tops they had seen occasionally emerge from the sea, but few outside their own small communities had taken serious note of their stories. 

Side wall of the U-shaped structure, Poompuhur, looming out of the murk. The structure was submerged about 11,000 years ago.

Watch video - The Myth of Aryan invasion theory - Part I and Part II and Part III and Myth of Aryan Dravidian Divide and Dwaraka - A Lost City of Lord Sri Krishna.

Watch Scientific verification of Vedic knowledge


Now Graham Hancock’s discovery earlier this year of a lost civilization that thrived some 30 miles off the coast of Chennai is forcing scientists to revise their theories and pay serious attention to his claim that civilization did not start in Mesopotamia, but rather in cities like the underwater Mahabalipuram that were drowned in floods at the end of the last ice age between 7,000 and 20,000 years ago. A leading UK expert on ice age sea levels has told him the site where he dived is indeed some 6,000 years old. 

“We can no longer think of the so-called Fertile Crescent of Sumeria as the cradle of civilization”, says Hancock. “What seems more likely from the large body of evidence I have compiled is that there were a number of cities built before this time which were submerged by rising sea levels at the end of the last ice age. Mahabalipuram, I suspect, is one of these.” The strongest evidence supporting his theory comes from the Department of Geological Sciences at Durham University in the UK where geo-physicist Dr Glenn Milne has built up a sophisticated computer data base that prints out the images of shorelines from any time in history. 

After Hancock sent him his data from Mahabalipuram, Hancock told him the site as at least 6,000 years old. “Assuming there was no tectonic movement at the site, and it looks like there wasn’t, then it appears that the area was flooded by a rise in sea levels about 6,000 years ago”, Milne says. “The computer programme is accurate to within 1,000 years either side of the allotted date.” 

Hancock says Milne’s reaction has vindicated him. “It proved that the methods I was using, the combination of deciphering ancient myths and new technology, actually worked”, he argues. “Of course I still keeping an open mind, but it does suggest I am on the right track after all. Its mainstream archaeology and science that are blinkered.” 

(source: Deccan Herald August 16' 02).  For more refer to Underground: The Mysterious Origins of Civilization – By Graham Hancock  p. 374).

Structures have also been found off the Poom Puhar coast, but South Indian history is nothing more than a footnote in Indian history books. So two major archaeological finds whimpered into oblivion after a few magazine articles. Any other country would have celebrated them.

(source: Marine archaeology and the study of the past - By Nanditha Krishn -

City Under the Sea

A spectacular underwater archaeological find by a joint British-Indian diving team that could rewrite history. Who would have thought a city that could be older than the Harappan civilization could be lying beneath water right off the coast of Mahabalipuram?

Sometimes, it pays to listen to the stories of humble fishermen. Local fishermen in the coast of Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu have for centuries believed in that a great flood consumed a city over 1,000 years ago in a single day when the gods grew jealous of its beauty.

The myths of Mahabalipuram were written down by British traveler
J. Goldingham, who visited the town in 1798, at which time it was known to sailors as the Seven Pagodas. Legend had it that six temples were submerged beneath the waves, with the seventh temple still standing on the seashore.

(For more information on this refer to

(source: City Under the Sea

Fossil hints at India's mythical river

Geologists in India say they have found an elephant fossil in the Thar desert of Rajasthan, supporting earlier theories that the vast desert was once a fertile area.

They said the discovery also lent credence to popular belief that a mighty river, named in the ancient Hindu Vedic texts as Saraswati, flowed through the region thousands of years ago. The significance of the river, mentioned in Vedic texts, is immense.

Senior geologist BS Paliwal said the elephant fossil was discovered in a village in Nagaur district, about 300 kilometres from the state capital of Jaipur, during gypsum mining.

"It proves again that there were once rivers like Saraswati and civilisations were flourishing at their banks," Professor Paliwal said.

Geologists had a few years ago found fossils of fish in Jaisalmer, a district further west from the site of the present find. These fossils were dated to be nearly 180 million years old. Geologists said the find was evidence that large water bodies once existed in the region.

(source: Fossil hints at India's mythical river - BBC December 2, 02). 

Submerged city may be older than Mesopotamia
There is growing evidence that the East Coast of India was the real cradle of modern civilization. Perhaps it's time to rewrite the history books...?

A submerged coastal city near Poompuhar in Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu, is the focus of a major expedition being conducted jointly by the Indian Naval Hydrographic Department (INHD) and the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).

Both the organizations are trying to piece together the city's past, which some noted marine archaeologists consider to be the birthplace of modern civilization. The once flourishing port city is located about one mile off the Nagapattinam coast.

"We have been able to locate a section of the city at a depth of 7 m and will soon start operations to recover objects that will help ascertain its past," said Rear Admiral K.R. Srinivasan, chief hydrographer to the Indian government. English marine archaeologist Graham Hancock, who conducted an underwater exploration in the area in 2001, believes that the Poompuhar site could be older than Sumeria in Mesopotamia, where modern civilization is believed to have originated nearly 5,000 years ago.

It led Hancock to surmise that the city could have been submerged by a tidal wave as high as 400 ft somewhere between 17,000 and 7,000 years ago.

(source: Submerged city may be older than Mesopotamia - By Utpal Parashar -


Page < 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 >

h o m e

a r y a n    i n v a s i o n    t h e o r y -  II

c o n t e n t s

Copyright © 2006 - All Rights Reserved.

Guest Book

Updated - October 28, 2008